General topics for preliminary examination - Environment part 2 - #31

General topics for preliminary examination - Environment part 2 - #31

Now let us take a look at Biodiversity. Various levels of biodiversity, their importance, causes of biodiversity loss, areas of high biodiversity - tropical rain forest, coral reef, Environment,  etc., in India eastern Himalayas, Western Ghats, bio-geographical classifications (25 regions in India), etc., have to be studied.


Measures taken to preserve biodiversity, efforts taken in India and internationally, etc., are important in our examinations. Now let us look at National Parks and Wildlife sanctuaries. Make a state-wise table listing all national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, biodiversity conservation zones, etc., and note down the importance and major flora and fauna of each. 


Sample question 

Achanakmar wildlife sanctuary is in Chattisgarh 

Bondla wildlife sanctuary is in Goa 

Shoolpaneshwar wildlife sanctuary is in Gujarat

Of these 

1 and 3 are correct 

1 and 2 are correct

2 and 3 are correct

All are correct ( answer)


Learn the government schemes for protection of important animals and birds. All government schemes including Project Tiger, Project Elephant, Project Vulture, Project Rhino, etc., and those for protecting turtles, whales, snow leopard etc., are all very important. Similarly, the major acts and bodies created for protection of biodiversity in India (Botanical Survey of India, Geological Survey of India, Forest Survey of India, National Biodiversity Action Plan, National Wildlife Action Plan, Wildlife Protection Act 1972, Biological Diversity Act 2002) and the world (Cartagena Protocol, Rotterdam Convention, Stockholm Convention, Nagoya Protocol, CITIES, WWF, etc.,) should be studied.

Next we shall look at climate change and global warming. The reasons for climate change 1. Natural causes - sun spot activity, continental drift, milankovitch cycles, damages caused by 

எரிமலைகளால் etc., 2. Man-made causes - deforestation, burning of fossil fuels, extreme industrialisation , outcome of urbanisation etc., are to be learned. Similarly,  ozone layer depletion, global warming, acid rain, etc., are geological causes of environmental change. Learn well about them.

Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, Chloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC) and such green house gases, and how they impact the environment, have been asked multiple times. As in other topics, this topic also has some jargon. It is very important to know them. Some examples are below: 

Carbon credit - permit to emit 1 ton carbon dioxide (or its equivalent compounds)

Carbon trading - Sales and purchase of carbon credit between organisations that emit carbon dioxide less than or in excess of their permitted limit. 

Carbon dioxide sequestration - the process by which carbon dioxide is removed from atmosphere brought under the Earth’s surface 

Climate change prevention measures taken by the Government of India (National Solar Mission, National Water Mission, National Action Plan on Climate Change (very important), etc., Earth Committee, Agenda 21, CoP conferences, and other international measures have to be studied. Sustainable development and its measures and methodologies - use of various eco-friendly resources, bioremediation techniques, sustainable agriculture, etc., are to be learned well. As told before, environment topic is one that is easy, having a limited syllabus and is high scoring. This can be your trump card. If you use it well, you will be showered with marks! Don’t miss this! We shall meet in next topic. 

- We shall win!

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